Effectively Addressing Severe Hypoglycemia: Implications, Treatment, and Communication
Release Date: June 27, 2018
Last Reviewed: June 25, 2018
Expiration Date: June 27, 2019
Time to Complete Activity:  1.0 hour

*This activity expired for credit on June 27, 2019 and is no longer available for credit 

Anne Peters, MD (Chair)
Director, USC Clinical Diabetes Program
Professor of Clinical Medicine
Keck School of Medicine of USC
Los Angeles, CA
Javier Morales, MD
Associate Clinical Professor
Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine
Hofstra Northwell University
Hempstead, NY
Vice President, Advanced Internal Medicine Group, P.C.
East Hills, NY
Jeff Unger, MD
Diplomate, American Board of Family Practice
Fellow, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
Assistant Clinical Professor of Family Medicine
UC Riverside School of Medicine
Director, Unger Concierge Primary Care Medical Group
Rancho Cucamonga, CA

Patient & Caregiver Faculty
Tim Moss
Corona, CA

Susan Moss
Corona, CA

This activity is provided by Paradigm Medical Communications, LLC.  
Target Audience
This activity has been designed to meet the educational needs of primary care clinicians, including physicians, nurse practitioners, PAs, nurses, and diabetes educators. It will also be of benefit to endocrinologists and other healthcare professionals interested in the management of hypoglycemia in diabetes patients.
Statement of Need
All patients with diabetes, including both type 1 and type 2, are at risk for hypoglycemia, or low blood glucose. Hypoglycemia is one of the most important complications related to antiglycemic agents, particularly insulin. Recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia are associated with increased cardiovascular risk for patients with diabetes. Severe hypoglycemia, requiring assistance for management, is a risk for recurrent episodes. Additionally, recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia may lead to the development of hypoglycemic unawareness—the inability for the individual to discern when they are experiencing a hypoglycemic episode. Severe hypoglycemia is a serious and potentially life-threatening event requiring immediate treatment and education to prevent recurrence. All clinicians who treat patients with diabetes would benefit from an educational activity that will help them better identify, treat, and educate patients who are most at risk for severe hypoglycemic episodes as well as provide information on new strategies designed to reduce or ameliorate their occurrence.
Learning Objectives
Upon proper completion of this activity, participants should be better able to:
  • Outline the pathophysiology and consequences of recurrent/severe hypoglycemia.
  • Describe guideline recommended management of severe hypoglycemia for both acute and prevention of recurrence.
  • Design education strategies for patients and their caregivers about hypoglycemia, including treatment and prevention of hypoglycemic events.
Table of Contents
  • Introduction to Hypoglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia and its Consequences
  • Glucose Variability
  • Guideline Recommendations for the Management of Hypoglycemia
  • New Technologies & Agents – Emerging Therapies: Ready to Use Glucagon Pen and Intranasal Glucagon
  • Helping Patients Help Themselves Through Education & Collaboration
  • Patient Resources
  • References
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PAs may claim a maximum of 1.0 Category 1 credit for completing this activity. NCCPA accepts AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ from organizations accredited by ACCME or a recognized state medical society.
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Disclosure of Commercial Support
This activity is supported by an educational grant from Lilly.
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  • View the online activity in its entirety.
  • Complete and submit the online posttest and evaluation.
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In accordance with ACCME and ANCC requirements on disclosure, faculty and contributors are asked to disclose any relationships with commercial interests associated with the area of medicine featured in the activity. These relationships are described below.
Anne Peters, MD
Grant/Research Support: Dexcom, Inc.; MannKind Corporation
Retained Consultant: Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.; Becton, Dickinson and Company; Bigfoot Biomedical, Inc.; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Eli Lilly and Company; Lexicon Pharmaceutical, Inc.; Livongo Health; Merck & Co., Inc.; Novo Nordisk, Omada Health, Inc; sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC, Science 37, Inc.
Speakers Bureau: Novo Nordisk
Javier Morales, MD
Retained Consultant: Intarcia Therapeutics, Inc.; Eli Lilly and Company, Novo Nordisk
Speakers Bureau: Abbott Laboratories, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Eli Lilly and Company, Novo Nordisk
Jeff Unger, MD
Grant/Research Support: Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Novo Nordisk, sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC.
Retained Consultant: Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc.; Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Novo Nordisk
Speakers Bureau: Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Novo Nordisk
Royalty: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Tim Moss
No financial relationships to disclose.

Susan Moss
No financial relationships to disclose.
Paradigm Medical Communications, LLC, staff members have no financial relationships to disclose.

Educational Review Systems, Inc., staff members have no financial relationships to disclose.

Independent peer reviewer has no financial relationships to disclose.
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